OSTEOPOROSIS11/26/2020 2020-11-26 6:17
Osteoporosis means “porous bone.” Viewed under a microscope, healthy bone looks like a honeycomb. When osteoporosis occurs, the holes and spaces in the honeycomb are much larger than in healthy bone. Osteoporotic bones have lost density or mass and contain abnormal tissue structure. As bones become less dense, they weaken and are more likely to break.
Breaking a bone is a serious complication of osteoporosis, especially with older patients. Osteoporotic bone breaks are most likely to occur in the hip, spine or wrist, but other bones can break too. In addition to causing permanent pain, osteoporosis causes some patients to lose height. When osteoporosis affects vertebrae, or the bones of the spine, it often leads to a stooped or hunched posture.
Osteoporosis may limit mobility, which often leads to feelings of isolation or depression. Additionally, twenty percent of seniors who break a hip die within one year from either complications related to the broken bone itself or the surgery to repair it. Many patients require long-term nursing home care.More than 1.5milion cases reported every year.
Osteoporosis can be present without any symptoms for decades because osteoporosis doesn’t cause symptoms until bone breaks (fractures
The following are factors that will increase the risk of developing osteoporosis:
•Caucasian or Asian race
•Thin and small body frame
•Family history of osteoporosis (for example, having a mother with an osteoporotic hip •fracture doubles your risk of hip fracture)
•Personal history of fracture as an adult
•Excessive alcohol consumption
•Lack of exercise
•Diet low in calcium
•Poor nutrition and poor general health, especially associated with chronic inflammation or bowel disease
•When vitamin D is lacking, the body cannot absorb adequate amounts of calcium from the diet to prevent osteoporosis. Vitamin D deficiency can result from dietary deficiency, lack of sunlight, or lack of intestinal absorption of the vitamin such as occurs in celiac sprue and primary biliary cirrhosis.
•Certain medications can cause osteoporosis. These medicines include long-term use of heparin (a blood thinner), antiseizure medicine such as phenytoin (Dilantin) and phenobarbital, and long-term use of oral corticosteroids (such as prednisone)
The following medicines may cause bone loss:
•Antiseizure medicines (only some) such as Dilantin® or Phenobarbital
•Aromatase inhibitors such as Arimidex®, Aromasin® and Femara®
•Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs
•Cyclosporine A and FK506 (Tacrolimus)
•Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) such as Lupron® and Zoladex®
•Medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception (Depo-Provera®)
•Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) such as Nexium®, Prevacid® and Prilosec®
•Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as Lexapro®, Prozac® and Zoloft®
•Steroids (glucocorticoids) such as cortisone and prednisone
•Tamoxifen® (premenopausal use)
•Thiazolidinediones such as Actos® and Avandia®
•Thyroid hormones in excess
*a healthy diet
*weight-bearing exercise to help prevent bone loss or strengthen already weak bones.
*You need between 3 and 5 mg of boron a day to help treat osteoporosis. It’s found naturally in foods like apples, grapes, nuts, peaches, and pears. Boron isn’t commonly found in multivitamins. Ask your doctor if you’d benefit from taking a boron supplement.