The Role of Gut microbiota on human health10/25/2020 2020-10-26 13:10
The Role of Gut microbiota on human health
The Role of Gut microbiota on human health
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The country reported 399 deaths in 24 hours, lower than Sunday’s figure of 410. A total of 20,852 people have died in Spain, with over 200,000 infected and more than 80,000 cured.
The Spanish prime minister, Pedro Sanchez , expected to ask parliament to extend the national lockdown until 11 May.
The human super organism is a whole ecosystem of mammalian and microbial cells, with the microbial cells estimated to outnumber the mammalian cells by about 10 to 1,
while the microbial genetic microbiome to be approximately 100 times greater than the human host. It is truly striking that such a large density of microbes can exist
in such a state of symphony within the human host despite the ability of the human immune response to rapidly counter infectious agents. This particularly applies to the outer gastrointestinal (GI) tract which houses up to 1000 distinct bacterial species and an estimated excess of 100 trillion microrganisms. There is increasing evidence implicating the GI microbiota in defining states of health and disease.
Recent research findings have demonstrated that the composition of bacterial community is dramatically altered in diseases such as periodontal disease and obesity, with healthy subjects typically exhibiting distinct diverse and temporally stable bacterial consortia at the discreet host niches, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI) and urogenital tracts when compared with patients exhibiting disease symptoms. Several studies have also shown that bacterial community structure plays a key role in defining its functionality compared with lean individuals, obese subjects exhibit a dramatic tenfold shift in ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (3:1 to 35:1), two of the major taxonomic groups of bacteria present in the human GI tract. The altered composition of the bacterial community is associated with a shift in function, resulting in increased energy harvest from ingested food; unexpended excess energy is deposited as adipose tissue (fat). Diet was found to be a major factor in that it can dramatically impact the composition of the gut microbial community. A high fat diet is associated with an increase Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and a concomitant decrease in Bacteroidetes. This reconfiguration is largely due to dietry selective pressure, which promotes organisms optimally poised to metabolise and import readily available carbon sources, particularly simpler sugars, such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Shifts in microbiome by diet and other factors are key to host health, particularly because the structure of the GI microbial population has been associated with protection against diseases.
In other research, segmented filaments bacterium (SFB) exhibited induction of immune cells CD4+ T helper cells producing a TH17 cytokine (IL-22 and IL-17) profile. SFB colonization also demonstrated a reduction of Citrobacter rodentium infection. Mice colonized C. rodentium exhibited significantly less colonic inflammation when compared with non-colonized animals. These findings were of particular interest, especially due to the fact that eroded TH17 populations are associated with a number of chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), lupus, multiple sclerosis,psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.
The Health Implications
- Humans are made up of at least 90% bacterial cells and up to10% human cells.
- The bacterial cells are in such state of balance and synergy that they support and promote the host’s health.
- The gastrointestinal (GI) tract houses up to 10 trillion microorganisms which help to maintain our health as well as facilitate other immune functions in the body.
- Alteration of the microbial composition of the body is associated with disease states, especially in the GI tract, respiratory tract as well as urogenital tract.
- Diet can dramatically alter the microbial composition.
- Food conversion to energy or fat may be affected by the microbial composition of the body.
- Presence of specific microbial communities enhance production of certain immune micro molecules which in turn play major roles in treating and preventing a number of chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBS), lupus, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis.